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Modern knowledge of Bosnia in the western Balkans during the Dark Ages is patchy. Upon the looter invasions by the Avars and Slavs from 6th-9th century, bringing Slavic languages, both probably gave way to feudalism only with the might by the Frankish penetrating into the region in the late 9th century (Bosnia probably originated as one such pre-feudal entity). It was also around this time that the Bosnians were Christianized. Bosnia, due to its geographic position and terrain, was probably one of the last areas to go through this process, which presumably originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast.


The second Bosnian ruler, Ban Kulin, allegedly presided over nearly three decades of peace and stability during which he strengthened the country's economy through treaties with Dubrovnik and Venice. His rule also marked the start of a controversy with the Bosnian Church, an indigenous Christian sect considered heretical by both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. 

Stjepan (Stephen) Tvrtko I (1338 – 10 March 1391) was a medieval Bosnian ruler and a member of the House of Kotromanić. He was ban during 1353-1377, king of Serbia and Bosnia during 1377-1391, and king of Croatia and Dalmatia after 1390. He was a "politically adept and religiously tolerant ruler" and under his command Bosnia reached its peak and became the strongest power in the Balkans. He centralized the state and conquered parts of medieval Serbia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Hum, Kotor, Zeta, and the territory of present-day Sandžak (Raška).

The Ottoman Empire had already started its conquest of Europe and posed a major threat to the Balkans throughout the first half of the 15th century. Finally, after decades of political and social instability, Bosnia officially fell in 1463, while resistance was active and fierce for a few more centuries.Southern regions of Bosnia, nowadays known as "Herzegovina" would follow in 1483, with a Hungarian-backed reinstated "Bosnian Kingdom" being the last to succumb in 1527.

Ahdnama or Ahitname,which is "Ferman" by the Ottoman Sultan "Fatih Sultan Mehmet" and the first human rights declaration in the world was given in Fojnica in 1463 by the Ottoman Sultan "Fatih Sultan Mehmet" to Franciscan Christians in order to protect them and their religion against the others.Thanks to the Ahdnama or Ahidname,Franciscan Christians lived in their region with their own belief under the protection of the Ottoman Sultan "Fatih Sultan Mehmet".

Bosnia-Herzegovina remained a separate province also after being first occupied (1878), then annexed (1908), by Austro-Hungary. After World War I it was included within the newly created kingdom of Yugoslavia; after World War II, as the Socialist Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina, it became one of the eight constituent federal units within the second (Communist) Yugoslavia. With the dissolution of the Yugoslav Federation, confirmed by the EU's Badinter Commission, Bosnia-Herzegovina sought international recognition, which it achieved on 6 April 1992 following an internationally supervised referendum in which the great majority of its population voted in favour of independence.

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